Minutes of the March, 2010 Heralds Meeting

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The meeting was held on Sunday, 7 March 2010, Herald’s Square. The meeting started at 12:35 am and ended at 2:50 pm. In attendance at this meeting were: Owen ap Morgan, Latimer, Maxen Dawel ap Morgan, Wilhelm, Baldric, Na'arah bat Avraham Banner; Jared Pinnacle Pursuivant; and Astriđ of Swansvale, Matins.

The meeting schedule in 2010 is April 18, May 16, and July 11, 2010. Meetings start at noon, unless otherwise announced. There will be no meeting in June and December, 2010.

Meetings start at noon, unless otherwise announced.

In general, meetings will be held at Eilis’ house (2322 Russell Street, Berkeley CA 94705; 510-486-0633 -- call for directions). “Road show” meetings will be announced well in advance.

Anyone who is bringing a walk-in submission should contact Matins in advance, no later than the Monday before the meeting. This is especially important if the submitter has previous submissions, since the files are stored in a remote location. If you are bringing the paperwork for a submission to a meeting, please plan to arrive by 11:00 am to allow the file to be set up.

We are researching some of the name submissions beforehand through an email list, wknames@yahoogroups.com. This list is open by request to heralds in the West Kingdom who are interested in onomastic (name) research. To join the list, please subscribe at wknames-subscribe@yahoogroups.com.



Vigdis, Vesper- Plans to step down in June and will be advertising for a successor in the next 4 months. The roster has been signed by Their Majesties.

Moira, Green Cloak Herald- no report.

Nara’ah, Banner- Thanks to everyone who stepped in at Twelfth Night to cover in her absence for family medical reasons. Will need court heralds for March Crown. Special projects still proceeding.

Wilhelm, Baldric- Herald’s Collegium was canceled due to chronic underattendance. Will be replaced by a herald’s track at Collegium Occidentalis. Field training continuing at tournament events.

Astriđ, Matins – Matins submissions have been made.

Owen, Latimer- Workshop held for Southern Shores went off well. Thanks to all of those who helped out. Consultation table will be at two Spring Coronets and March Crown. Collegium Occidentalis – full service consultation where submissions will be accepted at the table, on-line resources, photocopiers, artists. Special appearances on a limited basis – contact Latimer as far in advance as possible so that arrangements can be made.

Gwenhwyfaer, Brachet- been happening, up to 10 people are attending. December LoIs done, working on January LoIs. Hoping to be on February LoIs before the end of March.

Hirsch, Golem- no report.

Muriel, Seawolf – no report.

Elysant, Sable Swan – no report.

Clare, Stella Nordica – no report.


From Matins Herald: Please note that the "line drawing" requirement for device submissions does NOT mean a b/w photocopy of the color form.

For name submissions, we need two copies of all name forms and all documentation source printouts and/or photocopies. For device and badge submissions, we need four colored copies plus an uncolored line outline. Please use colored felt tip markers. Please do not use colored pencil, pastel colors, crayons, color printers or color copiers. The artist's signature is required, but the submitter's signature is not required. If you are using restricted or non-standard elements or any other supplemental matters, we need two copies of your supplemental paperwork.

Please make sure that all submitters print their e-mail addresses clearly. A single mistaken letter makes the e-mail address useless.

We will continue to hold voice heraldry training sessions at the beginning of events to encourage involvement at the event.

Spring Collegium - pending

SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS: SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS: Submission fees are $6 per name, $6 per device, $6 per badge - and a name and device registered at the same time will cost $10 instead of $12. There is no fee for resubmission of a returned item. Submissions require 2 copies of the name packet (form and documentation), 3 colored copies and 1 line drawing of the full size device form, and 3 colored copies and 1 line drawing of the badge form, as applicable. Required documentation includes printouts of any web pages cited – including reports from the Academy of Saint Gabriel – as well as copies of the title page and cited pages from any books that are not standard heraldic references. The submission forms for the West Kingdom College are now available from Matins or the Kingdom consultation table or by following this link: http://heralds.westkingdom.org/Register.htm#Forms. Completed forms should be sent to Matins Herald (c/o Gretchen Lebednik / 2322 Russell St / Berkeley CA 94705).

MAILING LIST: The West Kingdom College of Heralds has a mailing list for internal communication. Any herald is welcome to join by request. To join the list, please subscribe at wkheralds-subscribe@yahoogroups.com.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES: Many interesting heraldic links can be found through the SCA Heraldry web page at http://www.sca.org/heraldry, including the Laurel home page, the on-line Armorial and Ordinary (with search capabilities) and The Academy of St. Gabriel (an onomastic and heraldic consultation service). The West Kingdom Heraldry site and the West Kingdom Awards List can be accessed through the West Kingdom site, http://www.westkingdom.org. Heraldic queries may also be addressed to Eilis and Vigdís at heralds@westkingdom.org -- answers may take a few days.

West Kingdom College of Heralds Minutes are published on the web. They may be read at or printed from the heralds' website at http://heralds.westkingdom.org/Minutes.htm. There is a colored version and a printer-friendly black and white version available.

These meetings comment on heraldic submissions from other Kingdoms. The meetings are held on the second and fourth Mondays of each month at 7:00 pm at 4317 Alderwood Way, Sacramento, CA 95864. Call Gwenhwyfaer ferch Gwilym for more information, (916) 323-4268 or email her, .

These meetings comment on heraldic submissions from other Kingdoms. Please consider attending – you do not have to be able to attend every week. They are a fast way to learn how the Rules of Submission work and how to research armory. The Brachet meetings are in Berkeley on Wednesday nights. If you are interested, contact the Matins Herald, Astrith of Swansvale (Gretchen Lebednik) at or Eilis at 510-486-0633.


The cover letters, acceptances and returns for the past can be found at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/loar/. If you are interested in responding to some of the calls for commentary put out by the Laurel Queen of Arms, please be sure to visit the site.

December LoAR – Administrative Issues

From Pelican: Submissions forms written in pencil

Local heralds and submissions heralds, please encourage your submitters to fill in the submissions forms in pen, and not in pencil. Pencil, especially soft-pencil, often does not scan easily. Since I am an ocean away from Ragged Staff and the files, I work exclusively from scanned paperwork. A number of the submissions this month had forms written in pencil which were completely illegible when scanned. Ragged Staff was able to confirm the missing information for me, so there was ultimately no problem in these individual cases, but she said that even the non-scanned versions of the forms were difficult to read. As a result, I would like to strongly encourage people not to use pencil to fill out their submissions forms. If the forms are not legible when they reach Ragged Staff and Pelican, then, just as with armorial forms which have color-shift problems that affect the identifiability of the armory, the submissions may be liable to return for administrative reasons. This is something which we would prefer to avoid.

West –– DECEMBER 2010


Anne of Cloondara. Device. Vert, a bee proper and a chief Or.

This device is clear of the device of Lucia Porzia Sforza di Firenze, Gules, a bumblebee proper and a chief Or honeycombed sable. There is a CD for the change of tincture of the field and another for the change of tincture of the chief. While the field treatment honeycombed is no longer registerable, it was considered a field treatment when it was. Under section X.4.a of the Rules for Submissions, "Field treatments are considered an aspect of tincture."

Anne of Vinhold. Name.

Vinhold is the registered name of an SCA branch.

Dorothea of Caer-Myrddin. Reblazon of badge. (Fieldless) A hare statant erect playing brown Galician bagpipes proper.

Blazoned when registered as (Fieldless) A hare proper standing erect on its hind feet playing Galician bagpipes, we have added the tincture for the pipes.

Ginna Biornsdottir. Name.

Submitted as Ginna Brnsdottir, the byname was not correctly formed:

Submitted as Katelina Brnsdotter, the submitter allowed any changes and cares most about sound. As submitted, the formation of the byname is incorrect. The correct patronymic form of this byname in Old Norse is Bjarnardóttir. However, this changes the sound of the name fairly significantly. Therefore, we have changed this name to Katelina Biornsdottir. Biornsson is dated to 1454 in the Sveriges Medeltida Personnamn (SMP) s.n. Biorn. [LoAR 06/2005, Catalina Artemisia Anguissola, Calontir-A]
Since the given name was documented as 14th C Swedish, the Swedish byname Biornsdottir is compatible with it. We have changed the name to Ginna Biornsdottir in order to register it.

Sedania de Corwyn. Name change from Caithlin de Corwyn.

Listed on the LoI as Sedania de Corywn, both the forms and the documentation spelled the byname de Corwyn. We have made this correction.

The byname de Corwyn is grandfathered to her.

Her previous name, Caithlin de Corwyn, is retained as an alternate name.

Sighfridh hauknefr. Device. Gyronny gules and Or, a serpent involved, head to base, within a bordure argent.

Please instruct the submitter to draw the snake with a larger, more visible head.

Sophie Xylander. Name change from Sophie Xylander von Augsberg and device change. Quarterly sable and Or, a cross patonce between four roundels, all counterchanged.

Both elements of the name are grandfathered to the submitter.

Her previous name, Sophie Xylander von Augsberg, is retained as an alternate name.

This device is clear of the device of Mynjon du Jardin, Quarterly sable and Or, a cross raguly between four roundels all counterchanged. The two crosses are substantially different and, therefore, clear under X.2.

Her previous device, Gules, a seal naiant to sinister, its tail reflexed above its head, proper, within a bordure sable fimbriated Or. [Calorminus ursinus], is retained as a badge.


Sighni Ivarsdotter. Name change from Giuliana di Benedetto Falconieri.

The submitter requested authenticity for Old Swedish language/culture, but this authenticity request was not summarized on the LoI. We are pending the name to allow the commenters a chance to address the authenticity request.

The LoI originally provided the following documentation:

Submitter desires a female name.

Language (Old Swedish) most important.

Culture (Old Swedish) most important.

Submitter found both Sighne (as Swedish form of Signý and Ivarsdottir at the Viking Answer Lady website [<http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONWomensNames.shtml>].

She also consulted wtih Frithiof, who provided documentation from Otterbjörk of Sighni as the Old Swedish form of the modern Signe. He confirmed that Ivar is the Swedish form of Ivarr and that -dotter is the correct form for Swedish. Scans of the title page and relevant name pages from Otterbjörk's Svenska förnamn were included with the submission.

Lind. Column 884 under Signy has Sighni (1378 and 1379).

Column 661 under Ivarr. Genitive Ivars- dated 1221, 1309, 1329, 1354.

Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn frĺn Medeltiden.

This was item 6 on the West letter of August 31, 2009.



In Service,

Astrith of Swansvale
Matins Herald

SUBMISSONS – 10 March, XLIV (2010)


Abe Akirakeiko – New Name Change.

Old Item: Aine Sindradottir, to be retained.

All source information from Name Construction in Medieval Japan (Revised Edition) by Solveig Throndardottir, abbreviated in documentation as NCMJ.

Name pattern follows the structure "uji (clan) name + personal name", as would have been appropriate for a female member of the kuge (noble) class during the Heian period (794-1185).

Abe: name of an ancient uji (clan; NCMJ p. 390) and slo documentable as a non-uji surname to at least the year 1147 (NCMJ p. 315)

Akirakeiko: female personal name, also documentable to at least the year 1147 (NCMJ p. 374).

Fiallarr Gylđir - Resub Name & Resub Device

Per chevron sable and gules, three battleaxes bendwise sinister in chevron argent and a wolf salient Or.
Previous submission, Fiallarr rauđulfr, was returned by Laurel in the August 2008 LOAR because:
"The name is returned for lack of documentation of the byname. The byname was intended to be a constructed byname meaning 'red wolf'. Precedent says: [Information demonstrating that the appearance of rauđrefr in Geirr Bassi is an error] removes support for the byname rauđrefr in Geirr Bassi, we are left with no confirmed examples of descriptive bynames of the form [color] + [animal] in Old Norse. One commenter reported an example of rauđbekri 'red ram' as appearing in the Landnámabók, but the information provided was incomplete and we were unable to find the byname in the online version of the Landnámabók. Further, as stated in a previous ruling:

A pattern of anything cannot be derived from a single example. It takes multiple examples--the more examples found, the more likely it is that the theorized pattern is accurate. [Annalies Maria von Marburg, 09/01, A-Caid]

Lacking solid evidence of a clear pattern of descriptive bynames of the form [color] + [animal] in Old Norse, there is no support for the submitted Hvithestr as a plausible descriptive byname in Old Norse. [LoAR 12/2003, Kristin Hvithestr, West-R]

No new evidence was presented for color + animal bynames in Old Norse, and so this type of byname continues to be unregisterable."

Fiallarr is from Lind, column 267. Header spelling, but header is not dated.

Fiallar Nafarszsun 1374.

Gylđir = howler, wolf (Landnámabók Bynames [http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/vikbynames.html])

Previous submission "Gules, a chevron argent between three paw prints one and two and a wolf sejant ululant Or, a bordure argent" was returned by Laurel on the August 2008 LOAR because

"The device has a step from period practice for using pawprints and another for the use of a wolf in the ululant posture. Two steps from period practice has long been grounds for return. On resubmission, the submitter should draw the chevron wider."
This re-submission is a redesign.

Joel the Brewer - New Name & New Device

Per fess vert and Or, a cock close and two bulls combatant counterchanged.
Joel: header name in Reaney & Wilson, p. 256. Joel de Cretin, 1195.

Brewer: header name in Reaney & Wilson, p. 63. WIlliam Bruwere, 1148 and le Brewere, 1278.

Spelling "Brewer" from [http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/york15/surnames-alphabetical.htm]

Mairghread Dubh inghean Alasdair - New Name & New Device

Purpure, in pale a Savoy knot and a fret couped argent.
The elements of this name have been documented variously as late-period Scottish or Irish Gaelic (see below). The documentation for the Irish form of the first element includes accented letters. The submitter has left off all accents, which is acceptable as long as it is done consistently (according to previous commentary).

Due to some doubts expressed in the cited authors as to the actual spelling of the names, this may only be documentable as a Scots/Irish name. However, although the submitter requests authenticity for 16th century Scottish or Irish, she does not allow major changes. Therefore, we are forwarding this in the form submitted.

Mairghread: one website URL is broken [http:/www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Marighread.shtml] Also cited is Scottish Gaelic Given Names for Women by Krossa at [http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/women.shtml]. This links to the page [http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/women/margaret.shtml], has Scottish forms and pre-1600 Irish forms, and also states:

"Mairead ... Common. ... A Saxon St Mairead (c.1046-93), who was probably born in exile in Hungary, married Maol Choluim III (Malcolm III) c. 1069, bringing the name to Scotland. ... Cognate with Margaret. Occasionally spelt Maighread. See Magaidh, Mairearad, Meig, Peig, Peigi."[Morgan, s.n. Mairead]".

[http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/women.shtml] has "Mairghread?" as 1501 to 1600.

Also as <Máirghréad> in the Index of Names in Irish Annals by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, with dates from 1361 to 1662, which states:

"Standard forms of this name (based on spelling systems of different periods) would be:

Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c1200-c1700) form: Máirghréad".

The submitter also refers to O'Corrain & Maguire, 2nd ed. 1990.

Dubh: Woulfe, p. 284 under header Dub and in Maclysacht (1985) p. 82 under header Duff.

inghean Alasdair: was generated from Historical Name Generator: Sixteenth Century Irish and Scottish Gaelic Names by Krossa [http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/hng16gaelic/scottishwomanpat.php]. Both <Mairghread> and <Alasdair> appear in the relevant generator lists, but we were unable to get a result. However, the submitter has provided paper copies of her results from [http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/hng16gaelic/scottishwomenpat.php?given_id=68&byname_id=5&stage=result].

However, the author of that website comments [http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/index.shtml]

"Even for modern Scottish Gaelic names where there was a medieval form, that medieval form was often somewhat different. For example, although there was a medieval form of the modern Gaelic name <Alasdair>, that medieval form was most usually spelled <Alaxandar> in Gaelic".

The 1999 Academy of Saint Gabriel report#1638 [http://www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi?1638+0] states:

"The name <Alasdair> is a Gaelic form of <Alexander>, which was introduced into Scoto-Norman culture in 1124 (when the romances of Alexander the Great were popular). The name was adopted into Gaelic by the 15th century, and probably much earlier [1, 2]. Unfortunately, we don't know how the name was spelled in Gaelic in period: All the examples we've found are from Scots or Latin documents. In one Gaelic document, the name is recorded as <Alx> [3], which some authors have interpreted as <Alaxandair> [1]. <Alasdair> or <Alastair> are pretty reasonable guesses of how the name might have appeared in Gaelic."

Otto Spilman - New Name & New Device

Per pale Or and sable, a chess rook counterchanged, on a chief embattled gules, a winged mermaid harp between two hunting horns reversed Or.
Otto: from Low German Names from Hamburg, 1475-1529 [http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/hamburg.html] by Aryanhwy merch Catmael. 5 instances of Otto recorded from 1480 to 1492.

The submitter also provided paper copies from Das virtuelle Hamburgische Urkundenbuch [http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/hamburgisches_ub/] from testaments between 1480 and 1484 variously for Otto vam Mere, Otto, van deme Mere, and Otto van Mer at [http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/hamburgisches_ub/quellen/HambUB1481.html], [http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/hamburgisches_ub/quellen/1450/Hamburg1481.11.28.html], [http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/hamburgisches_ub/quellen/1450/Hamburg1483.09.11.html], and [http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/hamburgisches_ub/quellen/1450/Hamburg1484.01.29.html].

Spilman: Brechenmacher under header Spelmann has Faru Kath. Spelemans, 1470.

AMt wladenbury Pfarrei Schonholthausen [http://www.heimatbund-finnentrop.de/historie/002Amt_Waldenburg_oL.pdf] mentions multiple spellings uner the header Spielmann. According to footnotes, all names were from a book written in 1584, "St.-A.M., Herzogtum Westfalen, Landstände, IV 1 u. 1a; Archiv Hovestadt, Akt. 1584; Pfarrarchiv Schönholthausen, Register; St.-A.M., Depositum v. Plettenberg, Urk. 1209."

Also Bürger Ludwig Spilman (1499) in a document at [http:regesten.regesta-imperii.de/mailfenster.php?pk=104734], Erzahlung von Gilgen Spilman (apparently 1455) [http://www.digibern.ch/justinger/BernerChronik_1871/03_Justinger_Conrad_Berner_Chronik_Einleitung.pdf], and Ludwig Spilman zu Bettberg (1526) [http://www.uniarchiv.uni-freiburg.de/Bestaende/a/A001.pdf]

Blazoned on the submission as "Per pale Or and sable, a Chessman rook counterchanged Overall on a chief embattled Gules, a Winged Mermaid Harp Or between two hunting horns reversed Or", we have reblazoned it. We consider that it is hard to tell that this is a mermaid with wings and would be content to have it blazoned merely as a harp.


Annabell inghean Fhilib – New Name & New Device.

Per bend vert and argent, a Celtic cross argent and an Arabian lamp sable, inflamed gules.
Lowland Scots is not compatible with Gaelic. It is unclear whether is the correct form, but we cannot combine Gaelic and Lowland Scots. The device would have to be returned for lack of a name to register it to. There are also problems with the device itself. The Celtic cross is incorrectly drawn. An administrative issue: there is no artist’s signature.

This device conflicts with the device for AEduin of Skye (3/01 Caid), “Per bend vert and argent, a Norse sun cross argent and an anchor sable”. There is only one CD, for type only on half the primary charge group. The depiction in this submission is a Norse sun cross with a long lower arm.

Guilbert de Longespee – New Name Change

Gilbert’ de Longspee [registered Gilbert de Longspee: (Nov 1990 West)]

Reaney and Wilson p. 284. Header name Longspey: John Longespee 1219.

We were unable to document the use “de” with anything but a place name. Because the spelling is changed, it is not eligible for the Grandfather Clause.

Isole le Quite -- Resub Device

Per pale sable and gules, a greyhound passant to sinister Or.
Conflict with registered device for Berthold Wolfer (2/99) “Per fess azure and vert, a wolf passant contourney Or”. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field.

Name registered June 2008 via the West.

Katla Van Walraversijde -- New Name & New Device

Argent, three fish in triangle inverted, heads overlapping tail, vert.
The second and third elements are Flemish, but the given name is Norse. We have no documentation for the combination of these languages.

The device is being returned for lack of a name to register it to, but the design is also problematic. The blazon provided here only approximates the design.

Katla Van Walraversijde -- New Badge

(Fieldless) A hare rampant reguardant proper and in base a cauldron sable.
The elements are not connected, which is required in a fieldless badge. The hare is brown, but its belly is white. By precedent, “proper” for a hare in SCA usage is all brown.

Mariella di Mariano -- New Device (Resub at Kingdom). Per bend azure and sable, two compass stars bendwise, elongated to sinister base, Or. Returned for administrative reasons. An artist’s signature is required.

Miles Fitz-Rauf -- New Name and New Device.

Sable, a dragon dormant to sinister and in chief two arrowheads inverted, all gules, fimbriated Or, a label couped argent.
Adding a label to his father’s device. Permission to conflict provided.

The name is not eligible for use of the Grandfather Clause – he is not submitting the form his father used.

No major changes and no holding name are allowed.

Miles: Withycombe . 220 under header Miles. 15th century

While we can document Rauf (Reany and Wilson, p. 371, under Rauf etc. Raulf 1095, Rauf 1350 Rauf, Rolf 1308), and various combinations of Fitz and Rauf (Fitz Rauf or Fitzrauf, FitzRauf), we were not able to document the use of a hyphen with the names, and the changes necessary for any of the similar names would be major changes.

We found no conflicts for the device, but must return if for lack of a name to attach it to.

Xotikos Aegocerus -- Change of Holding Name and New Device Change

Per pale azure mullety Or and sable, a unicorn’s head erased contourney argent.
The submitter will release the holding name and the previously registered device if these are registered.

Scott of Golden Rivers: (Dec 1995 West) (Holding name)

Previously registered device (Dec 1995 West) Per bend rayonny argent and sable, two unicorn's heads erased contourny counterchanged.

We were unable to document the use of “X”, and the second element was only documented as non-human.

Device accidentally pended with name. It will be submitted on the next LoI.


Academy of Saint Gabriel Report #1638

Amt Waldenburg. Report available at: [http://www.heimatbund-finnentrop.de/historie/002Amt_Waldenburg_oL.pdf.

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland.

Brechenmacher, Josef Karlmann. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen.

Harris, Karen (Karen Larsdatter). Undated. Names from 15th Century York. [http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/york15/index.htm].

Krossa, Sharon L. 2003, 2008. Scottish Gaelic Given Names for Women (and linked pages by same author). [href="http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/index.shtml, http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/women.shtml, http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/women/margaret.shtml, http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/hng16gaelic/scottishwomenpat.php?given_id=68&byname_id=5&stage=result]

Landnánabók Bynames [http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/vikbynames.html]


O'Brienm Kathleen (Mari Elspeth nic Bryan. 2006. Index of Names in Irish Annals: Mairghread. [http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Mairghread.shtml]

Ó Corrain and Maguire] Ó Corrain, Donnchadh & Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names.

Reaney, P.H. and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames.

Regista Imperii. RI XIV 2 n. 6506. Document in German at: [http://regesten.regesta-imperii.de/mailfenster.php?pk=104734].

Sarnowsky, Jürgen. 2001-2009. Das virtuelle Hamburgische Urkundenbuch:Ein Projekt der Arbeitsstelle für die digitale Edition mittelalterlicher Quellen / des Zentrums "Geisteswissenschaften in der digitalen Welt" an der Universität Hamburg in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Staatsarchiv der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg. Available at: [http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/hamburgisches_ub/]. Documents presented on links at March 12, 1480, November 28, 1481, September 11, 1483, and January 29, 1484.

Strahm, Hans. 1978. Der Chronist Conrad Justinger und seine Berner Chronik von 1420 (Schriften der Berner Burgerbibliothek 13), Bern. Justinger, Conrad. Einleitung. Chapter 3, available at: [http://www.digibern.ch/justinger/BernerChronik_1871/03_Justinger_Conrad_Berner_Chronik_Einleitung.pdf]. Throndardottir, Solveig. Name Construction in Mediaeval Japan

Uckelman, Sara L. (Aryanhwy merch Catmael). 1999, 2004, 2006. Viking Bynames found in the Landnámabók. Available at: [http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/vikbynames.html].

Uckelman, Sara L. (Aryanhwy merch Catmael). 2006. Low German Names from Hamburg, 1475-1529. Available at: http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/nogerman/hamburg.html].

Woulfe, Patrick. Sloinnte Gaedheal is Gall: Irish Names and Surnames.

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