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The meeting was held on Sunday, 8 March 2009, at the home of Eilis in Berkeley, CA. The meeting started at 12:10 pm and ended at 15:01 pm. In attendance at this meeting were: Eilis O'Boirne, Vesper; Owen ap Morgan, Latimer; Moira O’Connor, Greencloak; Elysant atten Oke, Sable Swan; Vigdís vestfirzka, Compline; Frederick of Holland, and Maxen ap Owen, Walraven van Nijimegen, Pursuivants; Matilda FitzRichard,Pursuivant Exraordianry at Large; and Astrið of Swansvale, Matins.
COLLEGE OF HERALDS MEETINGS
The meeting schedule in 2009 is April 19, May 17, June 7(in Silver Desert/Reno), August 23, September 20, October 18, and November 15, January 10, 2010. There will be no meeting in July or December, 2009. Meetings start at noon, unless otherwise announced.
Anyone who is bringing a walk-in submission should contact Matins in advance, no later than the Monday before the meeting. This is especially important if the submitter has previous submissions, since the files are stored in a remote location. If you are bringing the paperwork for a submission to a meeting, please plan to arrive by 11:00 am to allow the file to be set up.
We are researching some of the name submissions beforehand through an email list, email@example.com. This list is open by request to heralds in the West Kingdom who are interested in onomastic (name) research. To join the list, please subscribe at firstname.lastname@example.org.PERSONNEL -- POSITIONS AVAILABLE:
REPORTSEilis, Vesper- Laurel has approved extension of Vesper office until Purgatorio and has granted approval of the designated successor.
Moira, Green Cloak Herald- White Shield this weekend, Crown in 2 weeks, need lots of heralds.
Nara’ah, Banner- (submitted in writing) Courts have happened. All appropriate paperwork has been filed. Vesper is working with His Majesty on a new award. I'm working on bringing ceremonies current for Crown. There is court training progressing. More at White Shield. I received ceremonies from 2 more baronies. Still looking for deputy/successor.
Wilhelm, Baldric- (submitted in writing or by Vigdis)
Unto the members of the West Kingdom college of Heralds does Wilhelm Baldric send greetings.
As most of you know Spring Heralds' Collegium due to site failure. This happened to due to a confluence of circumstances. To begin with, none of the leads from those who said they had a lead on a site came through. In fact, as usual, no one even followed up with to say they couldn't get anything. I had asked if we could use the Mechanics Bank conference room, but the notification that I couldn't came very close to the Page deadline.
I was prepared to get permission to use my own school site, but on the day I was set to ask, an emergency happened at school and I couldn't not get the permission in a timely manner. At that point, a discussion with Vesper as whether to hold it at her residence, but we ultimately decided to cancel the collegium. In part, we made this decision because the regular focus of the Spring Collegium (voice heraldry) is, in large part, being taken care of at the day-of training that happens, and has been happening, at Crown and Coronet tournament events. The other part of this decision is that, as Baldric, I am finding it harder and harder to ask that instructors put time into to preparing classes that are delivered to (largely) senior staff that already know that material being presented.
On some level this calls into question the continuing usefulness of the semi-annual single-track collegia, however that is a discussion for another time.
In a related issue, in part because of the cancellation of the Spring Collegium and because of the oddity of the upcoming hotel-based Collegium Occidentalis, Vesper and I have also decided to see if there are any qualified heralds who would like to be part of a heraldic track at that Coll-Occi. We, as a College, have taken a long break from Coll-Occis also due to lack of attendance. The prior two chancellors (Donata and the one before her) have asked us to add it back in there. The current Chancellor(s) also seems to be amenable. These could be classes that were for heralds or for the populace, but I ask that any class be approved by Vesper or I before you go ahead and teach it. The reason is simply that Vesper and I both feel that it is reasonable for the WKCoH to vet the class/info of someone who is going to be speaking on behalf of "The Heralds(TM)" or as "A Herald(TM)" and that what information they disseminate is in line with actual WKCoH practice and policy; there is enough poor and half information out there without supposed voices of authority promulgating it.
Owen, Latimer- Consultation table visited Tarnmist and did much work. Many people expressed interest in conflict- checking. Consider on-line interactive instruction.
Gwenhwyfaer, Brachet- No report.
Hirsch, Golem- No report.
Gillian, Seawolf- No report.
Elysant, Sable Swan - Investiture happened. Working on ceremonies. Coronet in Quincy in May.
Isabel, Stellanordica- A letter report has been sent.
ANNOUNCEMENTSFrom Matins Herald: Please note that the "line drawing" requirement for device submissions does NOT mean a b/w photocopy of the color form.
For name submissions, we need two copies of all name forms and all documentation source printouts and/or photocopies. For device and badge submissions, we need four colored copies plus an uncolored line outline. Please use colored felt tip markers. Please do not use colored pencil, pastel colors, crayons, color printers or color copiers. The artist's signature is required, but the submitter's signature is not required. If you are using restricted or non-standard elements or any other supplemental matters, we need two copies of your supplemental paperwork.
Please make sure that all submitters print their e-mail addresses clearly. A single mistaken letter makes the e-mail address useless.We will continue to hold voice heraldry training sessions at the beginning of events to encourage involvement at the event.
KWHSS 2009 will be held in The Barony of the Lonely Tower in the Kingdom of Calontir September 4-7, 2009. This is Omaha, Nebraska.
November 14 (Heraldic Collegium).
MAILING LIST: The West Kingdom College of Heralds has a mailing list for internal communication. Any herald is welcome to join by request. To join the list, please subscribe at email@example.com.
ELECTRONIC RESOURCES: Many interesting heraldic links can be found through the SCA Heraldry web page at http://www.sca.org/heraldry, including the Laurel home page, the on-line Armorial and Ordinary (with search capabilities) and The Academy of St. Gabriel (an onomastic and heraldic consultation service). The West Kingdom Heraldry site and the West Kingdom Awards List can be accessed through the West Kingdom site, http://www.westkingdom.org. Heraldic queries may also be addressed to Eilis and Vigdís at firstname.lastname@example.org -- answers may take a few days.
West Kingdom College of Heralds Minutes are published on the web. They may be read at or printed from the heralds' website at http://heralds.westkingdom.org/Minutes.htm. There is a colored version and a printer-friendly black and white version available.
These meetings comment on heraldic submissions from other Kingdoms. The meetings are held on the second and fourth Mondays of each month at 7:00 pm at 4317 Alderwood Way, Sacramento, CA 95864. Call Gwenhwyfaer ferch Gwilym for more information, (916) 323-4268 or email her, .
EAST BAY COMMENTING MEETINGS
These meetings comment on heraldic submissions from other Kingdoms. Please consider attending – you do not have to be able to attend every week. They are a fast way to learn how the Rules of Submission work and how to research armory. The Brachet meetings are in Berkeley on Wednesday nights. If you are interested, contact the Matins Herald, Astrith of Swansvale (Gretchen Lebednik) at or Eilis at 510-486-0633.
EXCERPTS FROM THE LOARThe cover letters, acceptances and returns for the past can be found at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/loar/. If you are interested in responding to some of the calls for commentary put out by the Laurel Queen of Arms, please be sure to visit the site.
WEST - Acceptances - October 2008
Cynagua, Principality of. Reblazon of badge. Quarterly argent and Or, a swan naiant wings elevated and addorsed within a bordure sable.
Blazoned when registered as Quarterly argent and Or, a swan naiant within a bordure sable, an examination of the forms shows that the wings are actually elevated and addorsed.
West – Acceptances – NOVEMBER 2008
(June 2008 LoI)
Amaryllis Alexandrea de Lacey. Device change. Gules, in bend sinister three pomegranates Or seeded gules.
Please instruct the submitter to draw each of the seeds larger, so that there is nearly no space between them. Typically, the seeds of the pomegranates comprise nearly the entire center of the fruit, so almost all of the center section of the fruit should be gules. The submitted depiction has small, widely separated gules seeds on an Or background.
Her old device, Per pale azure and Or, on a bend sinister cotised, two tassels palewise, all counterchanged, is released.
Eva van Brugge. Name change from Aibhilín inghean Eoghain.
The submitter requested authenticity for 15th C Flemish. While we did not find any examples of the byname van Brugge in the 15th C, Walraven notes that it can be found on p. 122 of Wilfried Beele, Studie van de Ieperse Persoonsnamen uit de Stads- en Baljuwsrekeningen 1250-1400, (Familia et Patria, 1975), and Brugge is the standard modern form of the city's name. It's therefore likely that this spelling was also used in the 15th century.Isibel inghean Uilliam. Name.
Her previous name, Aibhilín inghean Eoghain, is released.
Kors Damiszoon. Name.
Nice 15th C Dutch name!
Michael of the Shire. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per saltire Or and purpure, an arrow sable.
Submitted under the name Miach of the Shire.Owen ap Morgan. Device change. Vert, on a bend engrailed argent three oak leaves vert.
His old device, Vert, on a bend sinister engrailed argent three oak leaves vert, is retained as a badge.Sciath inghean Airt. Name and device. Per fess vert and sable, in bend sinister three bees Or.
The submitter requested authenticity for Irish 900-1200, but does not allow major changes. The name is not authentic because it combines Old or Middle Irish Sciath with Early Modern Irish inghean Airt. We cannot change the name to the wholly Old or Middle Irish form Sciath ingen Airt, because the change of language is a major change.
Please instruct the submitter to draw the bees to better fill the space.
Veronica of Silver Desert. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Purpure, three lozenges Or.
Submitted under the name Veronica Perla.
Wolfgrim Kolbrands son. Name and device. Quarterly sable and vert, in bend sinister two wolf's heads cabossed argent.
Submitted as Wulfgrim Kolbrands_, this combined an ostensibly Old English given name with a Norwegian byname. The combination of Old English and Norwegian is not registerable. Old English had become Middle English before Old Norse had developed into Norwegian, meaning that there was no significant contact between the speakers of these two languages.
Additionally, the given name, Wulfgrim, was documented from Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. Searle uses standardized, normalized forms for all of his entries; he is not a reliable source for any spelling variant, and any entry in his source should be cross-checked against a more reliable source, such as Tengvik, Old English Bynames, the Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England, or Sean Miller's database of Anglo-Saxon charters. In this case, none of these sources were able to provide any citations for any form of Wulfgrim. Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch. Nach oberrheinischen Quellen des 12. und 13. Jahrhunderts, p. 199 dates Wolfgrimus to 778; the expected vernacular of this would be Wolfgrim. Geirr Bassi, The Old Norse Name, p. 12 lists the given name Kolbrandr. The correct Old Norse patronymic byname formed from this name is Kolbrands son. We have changed the name to Wolfgrim Kolbrands_son in order to register the name; this combines Old German and Old Norse in the same name, which is one step from period practice.
West – Returns – NOVEMBER 2008
(June 2008 LoI)
Miach of the Shire. Name.
This is returned for lack of documentation for the given name. Ó Corráin and Maguire, Irish Names, s.n. Miadach notes that Miach is a Modern Irish (c. 1700-present) form of the name, which appears as the name of one of the ladies of the fianna in the Finn tales and which in current times is sometimes used as a masculine name. As a Modern Irish form, Miach is not registerable; and lacking any evidence that a period form of Miadach was used by ordinary people in our period, men or women, it is not registerable.Veronica Perla. Name.
His armory was registered under the holding name Michael of the Shire.
No evidence was provided on the LoI and none supplied by the commenters that the byname Perla was used before 1600. Lacking such evidence, it is not registerable.
Her armory was registered under the holding name Veronica of Silver Desert.
Astrith of Swansvale
SUBMISSONS – 8 March, XLIII (2009)ITEMS SENT TO LAUREL
Adriana Ida of Kortrijk – (Pavlok Gorod) - New Name
Submitted as Adriana Ida of Kortrijk". Because the submitter requested authenticity regarding the "of", I have changed the name to "Adriana Ida van Kortrijk".
The submitter found all of the names in at the SCA website referenced in the following discussion provided primarily by Owen ap Morgan, Latimer Herald, with additional comments from Walraven van Nijmegen:
<Adriana> listed in Vlaamse Vrouwennamen - Flemish Feminine Names 1259 - 1530 [http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/vlaamse.htm] under "Kortrijk 1391 - 1428" with 18 instances noted
<Ida> listed in Vlaamse Vrouwennamen - Flemish Feminine Names 1259 - 1530 under [http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/vlaamse.htm] with 17 instances noted in the list headed "Brussels 1259-1530", 6 instances from "Kampenhout-Erps 1321-1499", and 23 instances from "Tongeren 1385-1511'" There are, however, no instances cited in the Kortrijk list.
Because the article does not discuss name construction, nor does it give examples of names in their entirety, it provides no guidance on how plausible the use of two given names is in this context, whether considered as such or as given + unmarked matronymic.
<Kortrijk> is the modern Dutch name of a city in Belgium; it appears in the cited article only in the column header, and there is no indication whether this is a period spelling or strictly a modern one. The city apparently did exist in period, judging by information including the content of its website http://www.kortrijk.be/en. Lacking any evidence that the name was spelled differently in period, this seems reasonable.
As the name is Dutch, <van Kortrijk> would seem to be an appropriate form for the locative.
The Dutch double name is one step from period practice.
Angelina Taina Besova – (Pavlok Gorod) - New Name
<Angelina> appears in Wickenden (pp.8-9) as a feminine name; this spelling is cited from 1499.
<Taina> appears in Wickenden (p.358) as a feminine name; this spelling is cited from 1609, within the gray area for acceptability.
<Besova> is a feminized Russian patronymic. Wickenden (p.25 under 'Bes') cites <Besov> from 1622; the root name <Bes> is cited from c1495 and a variant patronymic <Beskov> from 1498. Per Wickenden's introduction, adding a terminal <-a> is the standard way of feminizing a Russian patronymic.
Wickenden's introduction (p.xviii) indicates that double given names can be found in period Russian documents, though never consisting of two Christian names. No evidence was found to suggest that <Taina> is a Christian name.
Walraven commented: Precedent allows the registration of Russian names with two given names, and only counts a weirdness if the two elements are not of the documented Christian/Slavic mix. A double Christian given name would thus be a step from period practice at most. I can't find anything explicitly helpful about the name. Bosanac says it's a short form (probably used affectionately), but doesn't say what name it comes from. Paul (Wickenden) glosses the name as "mystery" (without identifying the source language), but I can verify that there is a Slavic root for this name meaning "mystery". On that basis, I assume it is of Slavic origin, and this name can be registered with no step from period practice.
Bjarnheðinn Hamersson – (West Kingdom - Cloverdale) – Name Resubmission and New Device, Resubmission to Kingdom
Gules, a hammer Or within an orle of bezants.<Bjarnheðinn> Geirr Bassi has the masculine given name Bjarnheðinn on p.8. Bjarnhéðinn is in An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Richard Cleasby on p. 66 under the header spelling Björn.
<Hamersson> Hamarsson is a patronymic created from Hamarr on p. 130 in Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire by Gillian Fellos Jensen.
We see a potential visual conflict with the registered device for Geirdis Valsdottir (11/05, West)
"Gules a club inverted Or within an orle of bezants." We request a ruling from Laurel on whether there is substantial
difference between a hammer and a club.
Cormac MacKay – (Cloondara) –New Device - Resubmission to Kingdom
Sable, a sinister chief quarter checky vert and argent.The submitter's name was registered in August, 2008, via the West.
We note that there has been a previous registration of a quarter
for Sæunn Hrafnsdóttir (1/2000) for: Checky Or and gules, a quarter sable.
Jocelyn of Rowenwood – (Crosston) – New Badge
(Fieldless) A talbot couchant contourney argent, charged on the shoulder with a fleur-de-lis vert.The submitter’s name was registered in May, 2008, via the West.
We noticed that the tail is shortened, but we did not consider it necessary to include this in the blazon.
Martin de Huy – (Fendrake Marsh) – New Device, Resubmission at Kingdom
Or, a wolf’s head couped contourney azure and a bordure sable.The submitter’s name was registered in May, 2008, via the West.
Tama Katerina Evstokh’eva – (Pavlok Gorod) – Appeal/Request for Reconsideration of Name
or Tamara Katerina Evstokh’eva or Tamar Katerina Evstokh’eva: (includes the 2 variations)
Registered as Katerina Evstokh’eva in October 2004, via the West.
This is an Appeal/Request for Reconsideration of Name. The submitter wishes to register <Tama Katerina Evstokh'eva> or <Tamara Katerina Evstokh'eva> or <Tamar Katerina Evstokh'eva>.
<Tama> was dropped from the original submission in October 2004 in order to register it, based on the following:
"Submitted as Tama Katerina Evstokh'eva, the name Tama is not formed according to documented Russian practice. Nebuly explains: "The addition of an -a will rarely create a feminized form in Slavic languages, and more often creates a masculine diminutive of a given name, e.g. Antip/Antipa, Dorosh/Dorosha (Dorofei), Kharko/Kharka (Khariton). For each pair of names, both forms are listed as masculine by Wickenden. I was able to pull all three of these example pairs from Wickenden in less than a minute by opening to random pages, which should show evidence that this pattern is common.
Adding an -a is only a general pattern of feminization in Slavic names in certain special cases where the root name is a standard old dithematic name, like Borislav, Borimir, Svetislav, Svetimir, etc. Of the three examples presented in the LoI, only one is of this type (Rostislav/Rostislava), and is legitimately a feminization. However, since the submission uses the proposed masculine root Tam, which is not a dithematic name in Russian, such examples do not apply toward justifying this submission. They represent a different specialized case."
In support of her preferred name, the submitter has provided documentation from usage in other Slavic languages and some neighboring languages as possible sources of the name transitioning into Russian use.
She has provided documentation from Paul Goldschmidt's Dictionary of Period Russian Names - Section T-U for Tamar [http://heraldry.sca.org/paul/t-u.html].
Also material from a website on Queen Tamar of Georgia (1184-1213) [http://www.answers.com/topic/tamar-of-georgia] where Tamar is given as the transliteration of the Georgian name and several other websites, some of which I cannot access.
Early Croatioan Given Names (Walraven) c [http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/walraven/croat/] on constructing feminine names from masculine names.
Tamas and Tami at [http://www.geocities.com/Athens/1336/magyar16.htm/#about] for Tamas and Tami.
Also a Mongol name website for Tamachi, and wikipedia for Tama as a Hebrew name, with Tamara as a variant - undated.
One commenter noted: "I believe we have the then-Nebuly available to comment on how well these points have been addressed. I note that what Walraven's article "Early Croatian Given Names" says about feminizing masculine given names seems entirely consistent with the comments in the LOAR: "[T]he general rule is that any original standard Slavic /deuterothematic/ (two-element) name (not diminutives, Christian, or foreign names) can be converted to a feminine form by adding -a."
Walraven (then-Nebuly) added that he had nothing helpful to add in support of this request.
We were unable to document the use of Biblical names in medieval Russian orthography.
In summary, the additional documentation provided by the submitter does not adequately address the previous reasons for return and we were unable to find anything else to support the appeal. We are sending it on, as required.
Úlfarr inn svarti Þórisson – (Allyshia) - New Name, See returns for device.
Submitted as <Úlfar inn Svarti Þórisson>. I have changed <Úlfar> to <Úlfarr> consistent with the datable uses as presented below and <inn Svarti> to <inn svarti> according to precedent.
<Úlfar> appears in "Viking Names found in the Landnamabok" [http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/landnamabok.html]. Geirr Bassi shows only the spelling <Úlfarr> for the given name. Lind (now on the no-photocopy list) (c.1048 under 'Ulfarr') shows an undated instance of <Vlfar>, but the items with specific dates attached all use the genitive <Vlfars>, making it impossible to tell whether the original was <Vlfar> or <Vlfarr>. "Danmarks Gamle Personnavne" (_not_ on the no-photocopy list) has <Ulfar> as a header spelling, but also provides no useful dated examples.
<inn svarti> appears in "Viking Names found in the Landnamabok" [http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/landnamabok.html]. <inn svarti> 'the black', appears in Geirr Bassi.
<Þórisson> appears in "Viking Names found in the Landnamabok" [http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/landnamabok.html]. <Þórisson> is a Norse patronymic byname. Geirr Bassi shows <Þórir> as a masculine given name and states that names ending in <-ir> form the genitive by changing that to <-is>.
ITEMS RETURNED FOR FURTHER WORK
Caoimhinn inghean Eriu – (Cloondara, but possibly not resident there) – Return of New Name and New Device
Or, in bend a falcon volant azure, a tree eradicated proper and a lion couchant purpure.The submitter has an Arizona address and will be advised to resubmit in Atenveldt unless she has a West Kingdom address.
This name is not registerable for two reasons. (1) <Caoimhinn≶ appears in OC&M on p.41 as a _modern_ form of the feminine name <Caemfind>. This is not sufficient for registration, especially as the name description refers only to the daughter of a legendary figure. Neither form of the name appears in the online "Index of Names in Irish Annals. (2) <Eriu> appears in OC&M on p.89 as the early form of a feminine name. The entry reads "Eriu was the ordinary name for Ireland but Eriu was also a goddess and, like other goddess-names, Eriu could be used as a woman's name." Note this does not actually claim that it _was_ so used. Neither <Eriu> nor the modern <Eire> appear in the "Index of Names in Irish Annals"; <Eriu> has been registered just once in 1994.
The device must be returned for having three unrelated charges as part of the same charge group. This is sufficiently different from period style to be unregisterable.
Fiametta Margherita a Lucente – (Tarnmist) – Returned New Name and New Device
Gules, three foxglove stalks, slipped and leaved Or.The name is being returned for revision of the third element.
<Fiametta> appears in “Italian Renaissance Women’s Names” [http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/italian.html].
<Margherita> appears in “Italian Renaissance Women’s Names” [http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/italian.html] in boldface, indicating that it appears at least four times in the source material.
<à Lucente>: <a Lucente> appears on page 28 of “Census and Property Survey for Florentine Domains and the City of Verona in Fifteenth Century Italy” under “17 Piviere di Pelago” as <XXXX Stefano a Lucente>. However, these spellings appear to have been normalized and the “a” is a code, not a connective element.
The device seems to be clear; however, as we do not have a name to send it on with it must also be returned.
Fiametta Margherita à Lucente – (Tarnmist) – Returned New Badge
(Fieldless) A spoon argent, environed of a snake palewise Or.The badge seems to be clear; however, as we do not have a name to send it on with it must also be returned.
Judith Greanwood – (Canale) – New Badge
(Fieldless) Three estoiles, one and two, argent.The submitter’s name was registered in August, 2007, via An Tir.
This badge must be returned because the charges on a fieldless badge must be connected.
Lee O’Shea of Thistletore – (Thistletorr) – New Name and New Device
Vert, a warhammer bendwise and in chief three shamrocks Or.Because no name submission form was included, this submission must be returned for further work.
Lacking a name submission form, we must return the device.
Mariella di Mariano – (Fendrake Marsh) - New Device – Resubmission at Kingdom
Per bend azure and sable, two compass stars bendwise, elongated to sinister base, Or.The submitter’s name was registered in August, 1997, via the West.
Returned for redrawing because the charges are not in bend or pale and there is insufficient distinction between the major and minor points.
Úlfar inn svarti Þórisson – (Allyshia) - New Device
Sable, on a saltire argent, three decrescents azure.See submissions to Laurel above for name.
Returned because the bottom decrescent is not entirely on the saltire – it overlaps onto the field. This is not a blazonable position.
West Kingdom – (West) – Returned New Badge [for the Guild of Fence]
(Fieldless) An open book Or surmounted by a rapier vert.The submitter’s name was registered in January, 1973, via the West.
Because this is a Kingdom badge, letters of permission from the Crown and Kingdom Senseschal are needed.
Cleasby, R. and G. Vigfusson. 1874. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 780 pp. [http://lexicon.ff.cuni.cz/].
Early Croatioan Given Names (Walraven) c [http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/walraven/croat/].
Fellows Jensen, G. Scandinavian personal names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire Navnestudier, 7, Copenhagen, 1968. Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Private Press - Professor G. Fleck, 18801 Rolling Acres Way, Olney, MD 20832, 1977.
Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namm från Medeltiden. Uppsala: 1905- 1915.
Tamar of Georgia [http://www.answers.com/topic/tamar-of-georgia]
Tamas and Tami at [http://www.geocities.com/Athens/1336/magyar16.htm/#about
Uckelman, S. L. (Aryanhwy merch Catmael) 1998-2003, 2005-2006, 2009. Viking Names found in the Landnamabok" [http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/landnamabok.html].
Vlaamse Vrouwennamen - Flemish Feminine Names 1259 - 1530 under [http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/vlaamse.htm
Wickenden of Thanet, Paul. A Dictionary of Period Russian Names. Free Trumpet Press West, Normal, Il. 2000.
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