Minutes of the April, 2002 Herald's Meeting

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The meeting was held on Sunday, 21 April 2002, at the home of Eilis O'Boirne. The meeting started at 12:09 P.M. and ended at 2:51 P.M. In attendance at this meeting were: Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, Harpy; Frederick of Holland, Brachet; Astrið of Swansvale, Latimer; CAIVS Librus Marcellus Auklandus, Greencloak; Krysta MacIntyre, Black Mark Pursuivant/Clerk; Felix MacAvady, Pursuivant for St. Katherine's; Owen ap Morgan, PaL; Maxen Dawel ap Morgan, PaL, Anahita bint abol al-Karim al-Fassi, Cornet; Antonio Giordano da Sicilia, Cornet; Caterine Douglas of Northumberland, Cornet; Wilhelm von Homburg, Cornet; and Eilis O'Boirne, Matins.

COLLEGE OF HERALDS MEETINGS

The upcoming meetings are: May 19, June 9, July 21, September 8, October 20, and November 24. Meetings are generally held at the home of Eilis O'Boirne, 2322 Russell Street, Berkeley, CA 94705. Call for directions. Meetings start at noon.

NOTE: There is no meeting scheduled for August or December. We will not be meeting during those months.

ANYONE WITH WALK-IN SUBMISSIONS SHOULD CONTACT MATINS IN ADVANCE. This is especially important if the submitter has previous submissions, since the files are stored in a remote location (which is the fancy way of saying that we haven't moved them yet ...).

We are researching some of the name submissions beforehand through an e-mail list, names@synergy.transbay.net. The Names list is open by request to heralds in the West Kingdom who are interested in onomastic (name) research. To join the list, please contact Felix MacAvady at ha.raschid@sinewave.com.

Please send all correspondence (submissions, queries, etc.) to the address for the Matins Herald at Contacts. Please do NOT send submissions to Vesper or to any other member of the College.

ANNOUNCEMENTS

HERALDS' COLLEGIUM: The next Heralds' Collegium is scheduled for November 23, in Hercules. The meeting on the following day will be in Berkeley. This session will focus on the structure of the College and the submission process, book heraldry and conflict research, and court heraldry.

SUBMISSION FORMS: The submission forms for the West Kingdom College are now available from Matins or the Kingdom consultation table or by following the appropriate links at http://heralds.westkingdom.org/Register.htm#Forms. Completed forms should be sent to Matins at the above address. Current submission fees are $10 per name, $10 per device, $10 per badge. There is no fee for resubmission. Submissions require 3 copies of the name form and documentation, 4 colored copies of the device form, and 3 colored copies of the badge form, as applicable.

MAILING LIST: The West Kingdom College of Heralds has a mailing list for internal communication. Any herald is welcome to join by request. To join the list, please contact Matins at baroness_eilis@juno.com.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES: Many interesting heraldic links can be found through the SCA Heraldry web page at http://www.sca.org/heraldry, including West Kingdom submission forms, the Laurel home page, the on-line armorial and ordinary search and The Academy of St. Gabriel (a heraldic consultation service). Heraldic queries may also be addressed to Eilis at baroness_eilis@juno.com -- answers may take a few days.

KNOWN WORLD HERALDIC AND SCRIBAL ARTS SYMPOSIUM 2002: This event will be hosted by the Kingdom of Trimaris on June 21-23, 2002, at the Ramada Plaza Hotel & Inn Gateway in Kissimmee, Florida. Information is available at http://www.kwhs.org.

BRACHET MEETINGS

These meetings comment on heraldic submissions from other Kingdoms. Please consider attending. They are a fast way to learn how the Rules of Submission work and how to research armory. The Brachet meetings are in Berkeley on Wednesday nights. If you are interested, contact the Brachet Herald, Frederick of Holland (Fred Hollander) at 510-653-3652.

HERALDIC PUBLICATIONS

West Kingdom College of Heralds Minutes are now being published on the web, and are no longer available by subscription. They may be read at or printed from the heralds' website at http://heralds.westkingdom.org/Minutes.htm. There are now both a colored version and a printer-friendly black and white version available.

Updates to the Armorial and Ordinary are available from Free Trumpet Press West along with other useful heraldic publications. Write for a free price list. The address is Free Trumpet Press West, 1613 N. School St. Normal, IL 61761-1240.

A Pictorial Dictionary of Heraldry as Used in the Society for Creative Anachronism (by Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme and Akagawa Yoshio) is available in the United States by sending $15 to Bruce Miller, 1711 Tenth Street, Manhattan Beach, CA 90266, (310) 379-1321.

EXCERPTS FROM THE LOAR

The LoAR for January and February 2002 have been published. The cover letters, acceptances and returns for the past can be found at http://sca.org/heraldry/loar/. If you are interested in responding to some of the calls for commentary put out by Lord Laurel, please be sure to visit the site.

The Western acceptances and returns from the January 2002 letter are given below.

The following have been registered:

Brian FitzWilliam of Glastonbury. Name and device. Per pale azure and argent, two towers counterchanged.

Submitted as Brian of Glastonbury, the submitter allowed changing the name to Brian FitzWilliam of Glastonbury if the submitted name conflicted with Brianna of Glastonbury (registered October 1990). There is a precedent that Brian conflicts with Brianna:

This conflicts with the registered name of Brianna O Duinn. [Brian Ó Duinn, 04/00, R-An Tir].

Therefore, the submitted Brian of Glastonbury does indeed conflict with Brianna of Glastonbury. Adding FitzWilliam clears this conflict.

Cassandra of Crosston. Name.

Duncan Julyan. Name and device. Azure, a bend sinister erminois between two serpents nowed Or.

Submitted as Duncan Jullings, the submitter requested authenticity for "Scottish, any date" and allowed any changes. Jullings was documented as a header spelling in Reaney & Wilson (p. 258 s.n. Julian). In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern might not be registerable. This has been handled on a case by case basis. In this instance, the College was unable to find evidence that Jullings is a plausible period variant of the byname Julian. We have, therefore, changed the byname to his second choice, Julyan, which is dated to 17 Edw. III in Bardsley (p. 437 s.n. Julian). As we were unable to find evidence of any form of the byname Julian used in Scotland, we were unable to make this name authentic.

Ginevra da Ravenna. Device. Barry wavy gules and argent, a pegasus salient to sinister sable.

She has been given permission to conflict from Rafael Blackriser, Vert, a pegasus rampant to sinister, wings addorsed, sable fimbriated argent. Ginevra's pegasus was originally blazoned with its wings elevated and addorsed. This is the default for a salient winged quadruped and may thus be omitted from the blazon.

Gráinne of Crosston. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Azure, a triqueta argent between three flames Or.

Submitted under the name Gráinne ingen Domnaill Ildanaig.

Gunther Bärenjäger. Name and device. Or, on a bend between two dragonflies purpure a mallet Or.

Havoc atte Ree. Name.

Listed on the LoI as Heafoc atte Ree, this name was originally submitted as Hafoc Rhea and changed at kingdom to match documented forms. The submitter requested authenticity for pre-14th C Middle or Old English language/culture and allowed any changes. Both Hafoc and Heafoc are Old English forms and would not have appeared with a Middle English byname. The byname atte Ree is a Middle English form. Reaney & Wilson (p. 373 s.n. Rea) gives this byname as deriving from the Old English phrase æt þ{oe-}re ça 'by the stream'. ("-" in Da'ud notation represents a macron or overbar.) To meet the submitter's request for authenticity, we have changed the name to his second alternate preferred spelling, Havoc atte Ree, which is authentic for 13th C Middle English.

Hermineite la Cochonne. Name.

Mægwine Scipelie. Name.

Listed on the LoI as Maegwine Scipelie, both the forms and the documentation listed the given name as Mægwine. We have made this correction.

Mari Greensleaves. Device change (see RETURNS for name change). Azure estencely, in canton a quatrefoil saltirewise Or.

The charge in canton was originally blazoned as a four-petalled rose, but lacking any standard attributes of the rose such as the seeds, barbs, or standard number of petals for a rose, it has been reblazoned as a quatrefoil.

The submission form has been altered from the standard West Kingdom form and omits the check boxes which allow the submitter to specify the disposition of her previous armory. Therefore her previous device, Per chevron Or and azure, a maunch and a maunch reversed vert and in base a dragon's foot erect erased argent, is released, which is the default action. Please note that the check boxes on the submissions forms, which should be standard throughout all kingdoms, are not supposed to be altered. Valuable information may be lost by altering the forms. In some cases, alterations to the forms may be extreme enough to cause return of the submission, although that is not necessary in this case.

Her armory was submitted under the name Mari Alexander.

Riocard mac Ronain. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for c. 1350 Irish. As we were unable to find evidence of the name Rónán used later than the 8th C, we were unable to make this name authentic for his desired time period. Since examples of Rónán in the Annals of Tigernach routinely omit the accents in this name, we have not added them to this name.

R{o,}gnvaldr Gunnulfsson. Name.

Listed on the LoI as Rognvaldr Gunnulfsson, the LoI noted that the 'o' in the given name had a "hook" on the bottom. The College found documentation for the given name both with an 'o' and with an 'o ogonek', {o,}. Since this character (an o ogonek) was used consistently on the forms, we have used that form in registering the name.

Sabina le Sewester. Name.

Good name!

Stephan Auber. Name and device. Per bend sinister Or and sable, on a bend sinister argent a bear's pawprint palewise sable.

Sybille la Serena. Name and device. Per pale purpure and vert, a dragon passant argent between three birds volant Or.

Temair Brecc inghen Choluim. Name change from Kateryn of Blackwater and device. Azure, on a fess between three crescents argent a comet azure.

Submitted as Temair Brecc inghen Cholm, Cholm is the lenited form of the nominative form of the masculine name Colm. Colm is listed as the last form under the header Columb (p. 55) in Ó Corráin & Maguire. When multiple forms are listed after the colon in headers in OCM, the first form after the colon is usually a period form and the latter forms are usually modern. No evidence was presented and none was found that the form Colm was used in period. Lacking such evidence, this form is not registerable. We have changed the patronymic to a form consistent with examples in the Annals of Connacht. This source also includes examples of the spelling inghen which seems to be a conservative spelling of the standard inghean.

This name mixes Old Irish and Early Modern Irish. A more authentic form would be a completely Old Irish form Temair Brecc ingen Choluim or Temair Brecc ingen Choluimb.

Her previous name, Kateryn of Blackwater, is released.

Uilliam Ó Conchubhair. Name and device. Per chevron sable and vert, a chevron embattled argent and in chief two wolves sejant Or.

Valeria Favea. Name.

Vlasta von der weissen Sonne. Name change from Vlasta Ulvaeüs of the Wildhair.

Submitted as Vlasta von der weissen Sonne, the submitter requested authenticity for German language/culture. Documentation was provided for weissen Sonne as a sign name in German meaning 'white sun'. The documentation indicates that while von der weissen Sonne is plausible, the most likely form of this byname is zu der weissen Sonne.

His previous name, Vlasta Ulvaeüs of the Wildhair, is released.

William of the West. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per pale vert and Or, a Latin cross counterchanged.

Submitted under the name William le Forester.

William Warren. Name and device. Or, a bear rampant sable on a chief vert three increscents argent.

This is not a conflict with the historical person William de Warenne, first Earl of Surrey, since the College was unable to find a general encyclopedia that lists him with his own entry (though his son John is listed). William de Warenne was a companion of William the Conqueror at Hastings.

Please commend the submitter on his good drawing of the bear rampant and his foresight in ensuring that the sable charge had some useful internal details.

The following have been returned for further work:

Gráinne ingen Domnaill Ildanaig. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for "Early Irish" and allowed minor changes. The element Ildanaig, meaning 'skilled', was intended as her father's descriptive byname and was documented in the nominative ildánach from the Dictionary of the Irish Language (under the heading <il> in the list of compounds). That ildánach appears in the DIL documents that it was an Irish Gaelic word used in period. Some words were used in descriptive bynames. Others weren't. Descriptive bynames are rare in Gaelic. Most of those found refer to a physical trait. Of the few descriptive bynames that have been found to refer to a person's skill, none refer to unspecific concepts like 'skilled'. Someone who was skilled in a particular area might have a descriptive byname referring to that skill. Some examples include Cearrbhach 'gamester, gambler', na Seoltadh 'the sails' (referring to sail manufacturing or perhaps sailing).

In the case of ildánach, we have no evidence that it would have been used in a descriptive byname. The "Annals of the Four Masters" (vol. 5, http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005E/) list this word twice. Entry M1561.3 reads, "O Beirn Tadhcc, mac Cairpre, mic Maoileachlainn, fer ergna, ioldanach i l-laidin, & i n-gaoidheilcc, & isan dá dlighedh .i. ciuil & cánóin", which the online translation renders as "O'Beirne (Teige, the son of Carbry, son of Melaghlin), a learned man, well skilled in Latin and Irish, and in the two laws, namely, civil and canon". Entry M1534.7 reads, "Maol Muire Mac Eochadha adhbhar ollamhan Laighean lé dán, fer eccna iolldánach bá maith tegh n-aoidhedh", which the online translation renders as, "Mulmurry Mac Keogh, intended Ollav of Leinster in poetry, a learned man, skilled in various arts, who kept a good house of hospitality". In both of these instances, ioldanach/iolldánach (later forms of ildánach) does not stand alone. It is used in conjuction with other words which specify what the person is skilled at (even if it is something as vague as 'various arts'). Additionally, in both examples, the phrase which includes a form of ildánach is not actually part of the name. Lacking evidence that ildánach would be used on its own to describe someone, it is not registerable. If it were used in a descriptive phrase, as is the case with the cited "ioldanach i l-laidin" 'skilled in Latin', it would be registerable.

We have found a single instance of a form of ildánach used as what appears to be a given name. "Genealogies from Rawlinson B 502" ( http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G105003/), entry 492 give a genealogy as "Suibne m. Caíróc m. Maíl Chroí m. Mugróin m. Domnaill m. Conaill m. Rechtada m. Rechtáin m. Maíle Anfaid m. Dímmae m. Illdánaich m. Sáráin mc Senaig". Given this example, this name would be registerable using Ildanaig as her grandfather's name: Gráinne ingen Domnaill meic Ildanaig. However, it was felt that adding the particle meic, and so changing Ildanaig from her father's descriptive byname to her grandfather's given name, was more than a minor change. As she does not allow major changes, we were unable to make this change or to drop the problematic element.

As she requested authenticity for "Early Irish", the submitter may wish to know that we have not been able to document the name Gráinne earlier than the 14th C.

Her armory was registered under the holding name Gráinne of Crosston.

Mari Alexander. Name change from Mari Greensleaves.

The submitter's legal name is Mari Alexander [surname]. Therefore, this submission contains the submitter's first two names in the same order as in her legal name. A similar submission was recently returned:

The submission consists of the given names, in order, of the submitter. As this is one of the possible common use names, we have to return this submission for conflict against the submitter herself, protected under section III.A.9 of the Administrative Handbook. [Mary Amanda, 09/00, R-Artemisia]

Therefore, just as Mari [surname] would be conflict with her legal name, so the submitted Mari Alexander conflicts with her with her legal name.

Wilhelm von Düsseldorf. Device. Gyronny vert and Or, a saltire counterchanged.

The combination of the gyronny field and the saltire is very visually confusing. Each arm of the saltire is counterchanged along its long axis, which generally hampers identifiability. Because each piece of the counterchanged saltire is similar in size to the pieces of the gyronny field which show between the arms of the saltire, it is difficult to distinguish which parts of the emblazon belong to the charge, and which belong to the field. This design also does not appear to be period style. Absent documentation for the design of a cross or saltire, as an ordinary, counterchanged on a gyronny field in period, this must be returned.

William le Forester. Name.

A similar submission, William le Forestier was returned in the October 2001 LoAR:

This name is being returned for conflict with William Forster (1819-1886) who was an English statesman and chief secretary for Ireland. As he has his own entry in the online Encyclopedia Britannica, he is protected. There was a question whether the addition of the syllable in the middle of the byname was sufficient to clear the conflict in conjunction with the addition of le. In this case, the auditory difference between Forster and Forestier is not significant enough to clear the conflict. As such, even with the addition of le, these names conflict. [William le Forestier, 10/2001, R-Æthelmearc]

The same conflict applies to this submission.

His armory was registered under the holding name William of the West.

The Western pended item from August 2001 was accepted as below on the February 2002 letter.

Antonio Giordano da Firenze. Device. Vert, a dragon segreant and on a chief argent three crosses formy gules.

Congratulations to these gentles who had items registered. Those who had items returned will be contacted for consultation.

In Service,

Eilis
Matins Herald


SUBMISSIONS - 21 April xxxvi (2002)

ITEMS SENT TO LAUREL FOR REGISTRATION

Brand McClellan     (Teufelberg)     New Name

Black p.98 under Brand states that it is a personal name of Norse origin. He gives one given name example, Brande Fide (1506), and a variety of surname examples: Giliane Brand 1323, Thomas Brand 1512, etc. Black p.470 under MacClellan gives relevant examples like M'CLeallane, McClelan 1509. The surname was registered in this form to Brand's birth sister, Bryne McClellan, in September 2000.

Eileen Kathryn of Hareswood     (Southern Shores)     New Change of Registered Name, Device Registered 3/85

Currently Eileen Kathryn Brent, registered March 1985. The current name should be released if this submission is registered. The element Hares- is found in Ekwall, p. 219 (Harescombe) and dated to 1287. -wood as a common locative element, and is also found in Ekwall, p. 219, (Harewood), dated to 1246. The combination seems reasonable.

Enrique Matias de Rojas     (Tarnmist)     New Name and Device

     Quarterly gules and argent, two crosses fleury sable.

Enrique and de Rojas are taken from Juliana de Luna's Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century. They both appear in Names from the Account Books of Isabella la Catolica (1477-1504, mostly 1483-1504). Matias is taken from Elsbeth Anne Roth's 16th Century Spanish Men's Names.

Device seems clear of conflict.

Giuliana Benedetto Falconieri     (Winter's Gate)     New Name and Device

     Per fess argent and paly gules and argent, a fess and in chief an estoille between two fleurs-de-lys gules.

Giuliana is from Rhian Lyth of Blackmoor Vale's Italian Renaissance Women's Names, a collection of 14th & 15th century names found in Florence and taken from diaries and documents. Benedetto and Falconieri are taken from the on-line Catasto of 1427.

Device seems clear of conflict.

Grímr Einarsson     (Cloondara)     New Name and Device

     Sable, a saltire gyronny gules and argent.

Grímr is found on p.9 and Einar on p.10 of Geirr Bassi. The patronymic is formed correctly.

Device seems clear of conflict.

Raghnailt Suird Coluimcille     (Crosston)     New Name and Device

     Per pale argent and vert, a spired tower between two swords counterchanged.

This name was submitted as Raghnailt as Sord Colmcille. Raghnailt is found on p. 154 of O'Corrain & Maguire, as the given name of the daughter of King Aedua Conchobar, who died in 1393. Sord Colmcille is a real placename, found in Edmund Hogan's Onomasticon Goedelicum, p.616 under Sord, specifically Sord Coluimcille (no date). The genitive form is also found in Hogan, Suird. Since we could find no resource for "as", and the submitter will accept minor changes, we have dropped "as", changed "Sord" to the genitive, and corrected the spelling of "Colmcille" to a documentable genitive.

Device seems clear of conflict.

Ravenshore, Shire of     (Ravenshore)     Name registered June 1983, New Badge

     On an scallop Or, a raven, wings elevated and addorsed, sable.

Badge seems clear of conflict.

Rivkah Ströbele     (Saint David's)     New Name and Device

     Gules, a pomegranate Or seeded gules, slipped and leaved vert, a chief Or.

Rivkah is found in Julie Stampnitzky's Names from Hebrew Chronicles of the 10th to 13th Centuries, an extensive index of Jewish names taken from a variety of period documents. There are two citations for Rivkah both from 1096; one of the citations is specifically from Köln, Germany. Ströbele is found in Brechenmacher, p.691 under "Ströbele", which indicates that the name is a diminutive of "Strobel", from a descriptive nickname meaning "shaggy, touseled (hair)". Citations are: Rud. dictus Strobel 1291, Hartmann Strobel 1350.

Device seems clear of conflict.

Rónán mac Maghnuis     (Vinhold)     New Name and Device

     Barry and per pale Or and gules, on a chief triangular vert a crescent Or.

Rónán is taken from Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's 100 Most Popular Men's Names in Early Medieval Ireland, which is drawn from O'Brien's Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae, a compilation of pre-12th century materials. mac Maghnuis is taken from Saint Gabriel Report #1227, where it is given as Scots and 16th century. The submittor wants his name to be Gaelic and will not accept major changes. We could not document a more suitable form of the surname.

Device seems clear of conflict.

Ruadrí de Ross     (Battle Rock)     New Name and Device

     Quarterly Or and sable, a winged sealion gules.

The name was submitted as Ruairidh of Wester Ross. Wester could not be documented as a part of a name in any of our sources, and the web pages provided by the submittor also did not support his desired usage. Since the submittor wants a 12th century Scottish name, we have made changes to the name to produce the desired form. Ruadrí can be found in The Book of Deer, a 12th century manuscript referenced in A Simple Guide to Constructing 12th Century Scottish Gaelic Names, by Sharon L. Krossa ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/simplescotgaelicnames12.htm). de Ross is dated to 1205 in Black, p. 700, under Ross.

Device seems clear of conflict.

Valeria bi Cranmere     (Rivenoak)     Name Registered November 2000; Device Resubmission to Kingdom

     Per chevron azure and vert, on a chevron between two cranes in their vigilance and a griffin sejant erect argent three fleurs-de-lys sable.

Device seems clear of conflict.

Zephaniah ben Ezra     (Inbhir na da Abhann)     New Name

Zephaniah is one of the 12 minor prophets and also appears in several other places in the Bible (1 CHRONICLES 6:36, 2 KINGS 25:18; JEREMIAH 21:1 etc.). Ezra is also an Old Testament name (EZRA; NEHEMIAH 8, 12). We can find no documentation that Zephaniah was used in the Middle Ages, but other names of the minor prophets (Obadiah, Joel, Malachi, etc.) were commonly used as given names in period. The patronymic is formed in the standard Hebrew way.

ITEMS RETURNED FOR FURTHER WORK

Fidelia Rose of Edgewood Castle     (Crystalmist)     New Name and Device

     Purpure, a chevron inverted and in chief a rose argent.

The submittor documented the name as follows: Fidelia (Latin, "faithful one") is from Rule's baby-name book; rose is the flower she enjoys; Edgewood Castle is her legal home in Edgewood, California. While we can document Rose as an English surname and Edgewood Castle is a not-unreasonable construction, none of us could find any support for Fidelia or any similar name

The device is in conflict with Adriana Rose Sanford (Nov. 92), Purpure, a swan naiant and in chief a garden rose argent. There is only one difference, changing the swan to a chevron. Her only alternate is to remove the chevron, which brings the device into conflict with the badge of the House of York, Fieldless, a rose argent.

Gaeriel Anastacya     (Allyshia)     New Name

The submittor provides no documentation at all for the name she has submitted, although her modern name is Stacy, which may explain the Anastacya part. She did provide documentation for Gauriel from the online Encyclopedia of the Celts by Knud Mariboe ( http://www.ealaghol.demon.com.uk/celtenc/celt_ind.htm) that cites The Encyclopedia of Arthurian Legend by Ronan Coughlan. However, Gauriel does not justify Gaeriel, and there is no chance that there is a typo on the forms - Gaeriel is part of her email address. There is also no explanation of how the surname fits in with the given name at all. Sound is the only important thing to the submittor.

Marþöll Úlfsdottir     (Golden Rivers)     New Name

Marþöll appears in the Edda Sæmundar according to the submittor, but we were not provided with copies of the appropriate pages. She also states that it is found in Geirr Bassi, but what is there on p.13 is spelled Mard{o,}ll. Úlfr is found in the Landnámabók, and in Geirr Bassi, p.15. The patronymic is correctly formed. This submittor will be consulted with, since the documentation supplied does not match the submitted spelling.

Zephaniah ben Ezra(Inbhir na da Abhann)     Name Submitted to Laurel; New Device

     Sable, two mini-bendlets Or between a feather argent issuing from an inkbottle Or and a closed scroll bendwise argent handled of wood proper.

This device submission violates several style rules and will be returned for consultation. The bendlets are drawn much too narrow, and there are serious questions about whether the "slot-machine" rule has been violated, since there are three unalike charges (feather, ink bottle, scroll) of roughly equal weight arranged around the bend.


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